13-14% of global carbon emissions are caused by heat-driven industrial processes up to 400ºC/750ºF. Annually, these emissions increase at more than double the rate of emissions from transport, electricity, and buildings.
A McKinsey & Co. study of methods for decarbonizing industrial processes finds that emissions from industrial processes increase with 2.2% annually, whereas emissions from transportation and buildings increase with less than 1%. A major reason for the difference being that energy optimization of buildings and transport has received much more attention than the industrial sectors. In the report three pathways towards decarbonization of industrial processes are identified:
Energy efficiency, varies from fuel to fuel and from region to region, but often natural gas is the cheapest fuel option. The lowest prices for natural gas are typically obtained by large companies with access to piped natural gas. Companies that do not have access to a pipeline will have natural gas delivered as liquified natural gas (LNG) in pressurized containers. As LNG can be easily transported over long distances, it holds more uniform prices in most places.
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